The Renaissance is one of the most significant epochs in the history of human civilization.
The philosophy of India and China is not only exotic, but also the appeal of healing recipes that help people survive.
A person may not know the intricacies of the theory, but to engage in breathing exercises yoga purely for medical and physiological purposes. The main value of ancient Indian and ancient Chinese philosophy is its appeal to the inner world of man, it opens the world of moral personality, this is probably the secret of its attractiveness and vitality.
Renaissance philosophy: anthropocentrism and humanism. Abstract
Philosophy of the Renaissance of Europe. Humanism and anthropocentrism of Renaissance philosophy. Anthropocentrism and humanism of Renaissance philosophy in Ukraine
Renaissance philosophy. XV-XVI centuries. in the history of philosophical thought it is customary to call the epoch of the Renaissance, the Renaissance. This term is used to describe the period of revival of ancient culture under the influence of significant changes in the socio-economic and spiritual life of Western Europe. But it would be too simplistic to assume that the concept of the Renaissance reflects only the meaning of that era and that in the spiritual life there is a mechanical transfer to the then soil of the cultural heritage of antiquity.
The Renaissance is one of the most significant epochs in the history of human civilization. The term Renaissance was introduced by Giorgio Bazari (1511 – 1574) – a prominent Italian painter, architect and art historian of the XVI century.
Chronologically, the European Renaissance as a single cultural movement unfolded within the XIV – early XVII centuries. and covered Italy, Spain, France, Germany, England, Dalmatia, Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, and northern Croatia. But in these different countries it took place asynchronously.
First of all, the Renaissance began in Italy and in the XIV – first half of the XV century. developed only in this country, and fade there began in the middle of the XVI century. In Germany, the rapid rise of the Renaissance cultural movement occurred at the end of the XV – the first third of the XVI century., Then just as quickly slowed down. In France, the Renaissance covered the XVI century. In England and Spain – the end of the XV – beginning of the XVII century.
The fullest and most consistent evolution of the Renaissance took place in Italy. The Renaissance is a powerful cultural movement within the XIV – early XVII centuries, during which the spiritual dictatorship and despotism of the church were overcome, a new culture turned to earthly affairs, people’s desire for a happy life, as well as a new system of national literatures, a new philosophy and science; art reached an unprecedented heyday at that time. Characteristic features of Renaissance culture were as follows:
Secular, non-church, the nature of the culture of the Renaissance, which was a consequence of the secularization (liberation) of public life in general. Revival of interest in ancient cultural heritage, which was almost completely forgotten in the Middle Ages. Creation of human aesthetic and artistic orientation of culture as opposed to religious dominance in the culture of the Middle Ages. Return to the actual philosophical research to ancient philosophy and the associated antischolastic orientation of the philosophical teachings of the Renaissance. Wide use of the theory of "double truth" to substantiate the right of science and reason to exist independently of religion and church. The movement of man as a fundamental value in the center of the world and in the center of philosophy, literature, art and science.
The revival arose, first, on the basis of the achievements of medieval civilization, in particular, the period of the late Middle Ages, when feudal society reached its peak and underwent major changes. In the XIV-XV centuries. there was a rapid rise of the economy and culture of cities, new technical inventions appeared (printing press, compass, artillery, etc.), shipbuilding and navigation developed, and great geographical discoveries were made. This period marks the beginning of intensive book printing. In the field of culture, the struggle for the liberation of philosophical thought from the dogmas of the church is intensifying, new knowledge writing an argumentative essay and trends are emerging that did not fit into the medieval philosophical and theological system.
All these phenomena prepared the ground for a progressive coup, which was the Renaissance. However, the coup was not universal, it did not cover socio-economic factors and did not significantly change the foundations of the feudal system.
The second factor that played a huge role in the formation and development of Renaissance culture was antiquity. Hence the name of the day, its cultural figures were able to revive the ancient heritage and give it great practical significance.
It should be mentioned that the Middle Ages also referred to antiquity, especially from the XII century, but inherited from it only some elements. In the new era, the Renaissance, the assimilation of antiquity had a completely different character, its revival became the goal and essence of the new culture. Antiquity was perceived as the highest authority, the ideal of human perfection, in the light of which modernity was evaluated. Antiquity had the strongest influence on education, philosophy, fine arts and literature.
At the forefront of Renaissance Neoplatonism is its humanistic content.
Antiquity affected the formation of the leading ideological current of the Renaissance – Renaissance humanism. His stubbornness (sadness) can be defined as a manifestation of a passionate interest in earthly life.
There was not only unity but also identity between the humanism and Neoplatonism of the Renaissance. The founder of the humanist movement is considered to be the Italian public figure and democrat Coluccio Salutati (1331-1404).
In the new culture, in addition to the Renaissance of antiquity, largely reflects the socio-economic and spiritual meaning of the Middle Ages. In the field of philosophy there is a complex, inconsistent, often contradictory nature of philosophical views. Therefore, it is too difficult to determine a certain system of views, more or less stable trends or philosophical currents of that period. Even the views of some philosophers sometimes lack ambiguity, lack of certainty. In general, the philosophy of the Renaissance is not a repetition, a copy of ancient philosophy, but differs significantly from it. On the other hand, the new philosophy, although opposed to medieval scholasticism, bears the imprint of medieval culture, and it has certain features that are not inherent in antiquity.
This is explained, firstly, by the instability of the socio-economic system in the leading countries of Western Europe. It was a transitional period from one (feudal) formation to another, to new, bourgeois relations of production. It is characterized by the uncertainty of the social class structure, and hence – the heterogeneity of ideological guidelines. Secondly, the theoretical sources of Renaissance philosophy are too diverse and are not limited to ancient culture.
The Renaissance puts Plato first, not Aristotle. Plato’s philosophy is directed against Catholic theology and the authority of Aristotle in its scholastic interpretation, widely influences the assertion of philosophical idealism in its new form, free from medieval scholasticism, and openly opposes materialist tendencies in philosophy. At the same time, Plato’s teachings, including his ethical and aesthetic views, were used to justify the inviolable unity of the spiritual and the corporeal and were directed against the official religious doctrine of the killing of the flesh and the eternal sinfulness of man.
The philosophy of the Renaissance also does not abandon the philosophy of Aristotle, but the original, cleansed of medieval layers, and even distortions. Proponents of Aristotelianism sought to develop its materialist tendencies, borrowing much from natural philosophers, natural dialects and ethical teachings of the Epicurean school and Stoicism.
One of the sources of Renaissance philosophy were medieval heresies, which were a kind of ideology opposed to feudal movements. Heresies undermined medieval church dogma, official religious ideology, and cleared the way for anti-church ideas of Renaissance thinkers. A striking example of this can be the views of J. Hus and his associates. The formation of the philosophy of the Renaissance, of course, also had a significant impact on advanced trends in medieval philosophy in general. This refers to nominalism, rationalist and empirical tendencies in the theory of medieval philosophy.
However, Eastern philosophy, in particular Arab philosophy, which was characterized by a strong materialist tendency, as well as the scientific achievements of the Arabs in the field of natural science, which spread in Western Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, had a special influence. Along with these preconditions, the development of a kind of Renaissance philosophy was also facilitated by the great discoveries (especially the heliocentrism of Copernicus) and the inventions that were made at that time. The need to develop new industries has led to a qualitatively new advance in science – astronomy, mechanics, geography and other sciences.
Humanism and anthropocentrism of Renaissance philosophy
Renaissance philosophy posed and sought to solve important philosophical problems. In general, the philosophical thinking of this period is called anthropocentric, the focus of which was man, while antiquity focused on natural cosmic life, and in the Middle Ages was based on God and the associated idea of salvation. Hence – a characteristic feature of the worldview of the Renaissance: the focus on art.
The concept of "humanism" (Latin humanism – human, human) in the philosophical literature is used in two senses. In a broad sense it is a system of ideas and views on man as the highest value, in a narrower sense it is a progressive current of Western European culture of the Renaissance, aimed at establishing respect for human dignity and reason, his right to earthly happiness, free expression of natural human feelings and abilities.
The bearers of the new worldview were people of different social status, especially citizens who studied philosophy, as well as poets and artists. The object of their study was man, all human. Hence the name of these figures – humanists.
If the Middle Ages can be called a religious era, the Renaissance – an artistic and aesthetic era. After all, it is with the help of art that the diverse world of human feeling and its great value is depicted.